Analysis of variability of payback time of investments in various types of RES micro-installations for enterprises purchasing electricity and gas at the TGE on micro-installation scale

Analiza zmienności czasu zwrotu inwestycji w różnego typu mikroinstalacje OZE dla przedsiębiorstw dokonujących zakupu energii elektrycznej i gazu na TGE w skali mikroinstalacji
Sylwester Kaczmarzewski, Jarosław Kulpa, Piotr Olczak

    In the years 2021-2023, Poland and Europe experienced unprecedented increases in energy prices in the last dozen
    or so years, leading to shifts in the economic perception of renewable energy sources. PV installations have achieved a simple
    payback time (SPBT) of less than 10 years, also prompting a consideration installation solar thermal collectors.
    The study analyzed selected micro-scale renewable energy installations (photovoltaic, wind turbine, solar thermal collector)
    and estimated simple payback times for individual potential investments in these installations. The analyses revealed that PV
    installations currently have the shortest payback time, but this trend might evolve in the future due to the lowest daily energy
    prices coinciding with the highest energy production values from PV installations. In the years 2016-2023, the lowest SPBT
    value was attained for photovoltaics. However, in 2022, a similar SPBT value was achieved for solar thermal installations,
    replacing natural gas sources.
    PV and solar thermal technologies are also viable for micro-installations, with lower associated risks related to productivity,
    such as specific yields influenced by geographical and weather conditions, as well as terrain and landscape features, especially
    for small turbine turbines.