11. Models of formation of tariffs for heat energy and features of heat supply systems in the largest cities

 Hristo Beloev, Valeeva Julya Sergeevna, Stepanova Juliya Vasilevna, Krzysztof Jesionek, Savdur Svetlana Nikolaevna, Barykin Aleksey Yurevich
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The article considers the existing in the modern model of heat supply in Russia, Europe, the USA and China. There are two trends in the formation of the heat supply system-Central and individual sources of energy supply. Features of models of heat supply and pricing functioning in correlation with state support in the studied countries are reflected. Factors of inefficient pricing in Russia, including the lack of specificity of the market with a focus on the manufacturer, and a high level of state support, were identified. The factors identified are the need to improve the pricing model taking into account population density and a number of other factors. A comparative analysis of heat supply energy systems is carried out for the following indicators: tariffs for heat energy, the amount of utility payments for heating., the Level of average wages, the share of utility payments for heating in the income of the population in the context of major cities in Russia and foreign countries, which allowed us to identify the main trends in the development of energy markets.